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What the Tulsa Race Massacre Destroyed

A century ago, a prosperous Black neighborhood in Tulsa, Okla., perished at the hands of a violent white mob.

The Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921 killed hundreds of residents, burned more than 1,250 homes and erased years of Black success.

What the Tulsa Race Massacre Destroyed

Imagine a community of great possibilities and prosperity built by Black people for Black people. Places to work. Places to live. Places to learn and shop and play. Places to worship.

Now imagine it being ravaged by flames.

In May 1921, the Tulsa, Okla., neighborhood of Greenwood was a fully realized antidote to the racial oppression of the time. Built in the early part of the century in a northern pocket of the city, it was a thriving community of commerce and family life to its roughly 10,000 residents.

Greenwood Avenue in Tulsa, Okla., was the pulse of the Black business community.Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture

Brick and wood-frame homes dotted the landscape, along with blocks lined with grocery stores, hotels, nightclubs, billiard halls, theaters, doctor’s offices and churches.

Greenwood was so promising, so vibrant that it became home to what was known as America’s Black Wall Street. But what took years to build was erased in less than 24 hours by racial violence — sending the dead into mass graves and forever altering family trees.

Hundreds of Greenwood residents were brutally killed, their homes and businesses wiped out. They were casualties of a furious and heavily armed white mob of looters and arsonists. One factor that drove the violence: resentment toward the Black prosperity found in block after block of Greenwood.

The financial toll of the massacre is evident in the $1.8 million in property loss claims — $27 million in today’s dollars — detailed in a 2001 state commission report. For two decades, the report has been one of the most comprehensive accounts to reveal the horrific details of the massacre — among the worst racial terror attacks in the nation’s history — as well as the government’s culpability.

Greenwood Avenue, for years a thriving hub, was destroyed by racial violence in less than 24 hours.Department of Special Collections and University Archives, McFarlin Library at The University of Tulsa

The destruction of property is only one piece of the financial devastation that the massacre wrought. Much bigger is a sobering kind of inheritance: the incalculable and enduring loss of what could have been, and the generational wealth that might have shaped and secured the fortunes of Black children and grandchildren.

“What if we had been allowed to maintain our family business?” asked Brenda Nails-Alford, who is in her early 60s. The Greenwood Avenue shoe shop of her grandfather and his brother was destroyed. “If they had been allowed to carry on that legacy,” she said, “there’s no telling where we could be now.”

For decades, what happened in Greenwood was willfully buried in history. Piecing together archival maps and photographs, with guidance from historians, The New York Times constructed a 3-D model of the Greenwood neighborhood as it was before the destruction. The Times also analyzed census data, city directories, newspaper articles, and survivor tapes and testimonies from that time to show the types of people who made up the neighborhood and contributed to its vibrancy.

The marquee block

Perhaps no other collection of businesses tells the story of Greenwood and Black entrepreneurship better than the 100 block of Greenwood Avenue, rising near the southern tip of the neighborhood. This marquee block was the pulse of the Black business community.

More than 70 businesses operated in mostly one-, two- and three-story red brick buildings clustered along the block. All but a couple were owned by Black entrepreneurs.

In this stretch alone, there were four hotels, two newspapers, eight doctors, seven barbers, nine restaurants and a half-dozen professional offices of real estate agents, dentists and lawyers. A cabaret and a cigar shop were on the block, too.

You could shop for groceries, play pool, take in a theater show, eat dinner or get your hair styled — without ever leaving the block.

“My grandfather often talked about how you could enjoy a full life in Greenwood, that everything you needed or wanted was in Greenwood. You never had to go anywhere,” said Star Williams, 40, the granddaughter of Otis Grandville Clark, who was 18 during the massacre. “He talked about seeing Black success and how his sense of identity and pride came from Greenwood.”

The businesses on Greenwood Avenue were owned by people who were among Tulsa’s most prominent Black citizens.

Loula and John Williams came to embody the entrepreneurial spirit of Greenwood. They owned a confectionery at 102 Greenwood Avenue, and the East End Garage around the corner on Archer Street.

The Tulsa Star

The couple also owned the 750-seat Williams Dreamland Theatre, at 129 Greenwood Avenue, the first movie house for Black people in the city. It offered both silent films and live shows, and was also a community gathering spot.

Dr. R.T. Bridgewater was a physician with a practice in the Woods Building, at 101-105 Greenwood Avenue. He owned 17 houses and was also a community leader. The Tulsa Star, a Black-owned newspaper, called his home on the affluent North Detroit Street “palatial.”

Tulsa Historical Society and Museum (left); Oliver Thompson, the great-grandnephew of Mabel Little, via Tulsa Historical Society and Museum

Several women set up shop as entrepreneurs in the same building. Mary E. Jones Parrish, left, was a teacher and journalist who operated a typing school. Mabel B. Little ran the Little Rose Beauty Salon.

Susie Bell ran an upscale restaurant called Bell and Little Cafe with her brother, Presley Little, Ms. Little’s husband. It offered six-course meals that were written about in The Tulsa Star.

Buck Colbert Franklin, a lawyer, had an office inside a building owned by O.W. Gurley, one of Greenwood’s founders. After the massacre, Mr. Franklin provided legal services from a tent.

James Nails, shown here, and his brother Henry ran a shoe shop in the Gist Building at 121 Greenwood Avenue. The shop carried Black Swan records, and the family also owned a dance pavilion and skating rink in the community.

A. J. Smitherman, a journalist and civil rights activist, founded The Tulsa Star, which was headquartered at 126 Greenwood Avenue. The paper reported on stories of racial violence and advocated for the rights of African-Americans.

Laurel Stradford, Stradford family historian

J.B. Stradford, shown with his wife, opened the posh 54-room Stradford Hotel at 301 Greenwood Avenue in 1918. It was considered among the nation’s best hotels for African-Americans at the time.

A city within a city

Mr. Stradford and Mr. Gurley — who purchased large tracts of land in the early 1900s — were among the founders of Greenwood. They began building on the northern side of Tulsa beyond the railroad tracks, forming the bones of the city’s predominantly Black neighborhood that was separate from the white side of town.

Greenwood was one of the few places in the country offering Black citizens — less than six decades out of enslavement — a three-dimensional life.

By 1921, Greenwood had grown into a 35-block neighborhood with a bustling retail scene, as well as two schools, two newspapers and a hospital. Here, some of the community’s key places are shown in orange.

Booker T. Washington School, which opened in 1913 with 14 students, had moved into its three-story brick building in 1920. It would serve as a hospital and relief center after the massacre.

Mount Zion Baptist Church was among some half-dozen churches that burned. It was the city’s largest Black church.

There was also a small juke joint called Zulu Lounge owned by Isaac Evitt, who worked by day on a farm, but after dark, flung open the doors of Zulu.

In the evenings, residents had their choice of entertainment. Survivor accounts that were relayed to relatives recall neighbors getting “gussied up” to gather in Greenwood, with Thursdays being big because of “Maids’ Night Out.” Black domestics, many of them live-in workers who cleaned the homes of white residents across town, were off that day.

Many African-Americans migrated to Tulsa after the Civil War, carrying dreams of new chapters and the kind of freedom found in owning businesses. Others made a living working as maids, waiters, chauffeurs, shoe shiners and cooks for Tulsa’s new oil class.

In Greenwood, residents held more than 200 different types of jobs. About 40 percent of the community’s residents were professionals or skilled craftspeople, like doctors, pharmacists, carpenters and hairdressers, according to a Times analysis of the 1920 census. While a vast majority of the neighborhood rented, many residents owned their homes.

Occupations of Greenwood residents

Each dot represents a resident.

Professionals

Peoria Ave.

GREENWOOD

Frankfort Ave.

Greenwood Ave.

Musician

Preacher

Dentist

Physician

Teacher

Cameron St.

Actor

Attorney

Archer St.

Tulsa

Skilled craftspeople

GREENWOOD

Plumber

Shoemaker

Carpenter

Painter

Milliner

Machinist

Barber

Tailor

Tulsa

Service workers

GREENWOOD

Hod carrier

Gardener

Laborer

Chauffeur

Waitress

Janitor

Porter

Elevator boy

Bootblack

Tulsa

The New York Times·Note: Data is for 1920.

Segregation kept African-Americans from patronizing white-owned shops, and Greenwood thrived from community support of Black-owned businesses.

“Black folks faced an economic detour,” said Hannibal B. Johnson, an author and the education chair for the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Centennial Commission. “When they approached the gates to the wider Tulsa economy, they were turned away, so they ended up creating their own largely insular community.”

The massacre that ended it all

The assaults on Greenwood raged over two days. The morning of June 2, 1921 revealed emptiness and ruin in every direction.

Plumes of smoke hovered over the neighborhood. Ash coated the ground. Brick buildings had been reduced to bombed-out husks. And soon, the bodies of those killed would be stacked and discarded in mass graves and a river.

A composite image shows Greenwood ablaze during the massacre.Composite created with photographs from the Department of Special Collections and University Archives, McFarlin Library at The University of Tulsa

It all began on May 30 with two teenagers in an elevator in the Drexel building in downtown Tulsa and morphed into a sexual assault accusation.

Accounts vary about what happened between Dick Rowland, 19, a young Black shoe shiner, and Sarah Page, 17, a white elevator operator. One common theory suggests Mr. Rowland tripped and grabbed onto the arm of Ms. Page while trying to catch his fall. She screamed, and he ran away, according to the commission report.

The next day, Mr. Rowland was arrested and jailed in the Tulsa County Courthouse. By that afternoon, The Tulsa Tribune published a front-page news story with the headline “Nab Negro for Attacking Girl in Elevator,” which essentially mobilized a lynch mob that showed up at the courthouse.

Twice, a group of armed Black Tulsans, many of them World War I veterans, offered to help protect Mr. Rowland but were turned away by the sheriff.

As the Black men were leaving the second time, a white man attempted to disarm a Black veteran, and a gun went off in the scuffle. That clash and others that day marked the beginning of what would become Greenwood’s armed destruction. Some white rioters were even deputized and given weapons by civil officials.

Near dawn, the white mob descended on Greenwood. Black Tulsans fought back, valiantly defending their families and property. But they were woefully outnumbered.

Key moments in the massacre

A riot erupted at the courthouse in downtown Tulsa. Then a white mob moved northward into Greenwood.

Pine St.

Frankfort Ave.

Greenwood Ave.

Tulsa

Oklahoma

Peoria Ave.

Greenwood

Main St.

Latimer St.

Burned Area

Nearly all of Greenwood is set ablaze.

N Elgin Ave.

Easton St.

N Detroit Ave.

Greenwood

Business

District

More buildings set afire in business district.

Owen

Park

Cameron St.

White mob sets first fires along Archer Street.

Archer St.

Tulsa tribune

Shots are fired across the tracks.

Frisco tracks

Heavy gunfire ensues downtown.

Police

Headquarters

Downtown

Tulsa

TULSA

Drexel building

Riot erupts at courthouse. First shot fired.

Courthouse

Main St.

Detroit Ave.

Oaklawn

Cemetery

Boston Ave.

Pine St.

Frankfort Ave.

Greenwood Ave.

Tulsa

Oklahoma

Peoria Ave.

Greenwood

Main St.

Latimer St.

Burned Area

Nearly all of Greenwood is set ablaze.

N Elgin Ave.

N Detroit Ave.

Greenwood

Business

District

More buildings set afire in business district.

Owen

Park

Cameron St.

White mob sets first fires along Archer Street.

Archer St.

Shots are fired across the tracks.

Tulsa tribune

Frisco tracks

Heavy gunfire ensues downtown.

Police

Headquarters

Downtown

Tulsa

TULSA

Drexel building

Riot erupts at courthouse. First shot fired.

Courthouse

Main St.

Detroit Ave.

Boston Ave.

Oaklawn

Cemetery

Pine St.

Frankfort Ave.

Greenwood Ave.

Tulsa

Peoria Ave.

Oklahoma

Greenwood

Latimer St.

Burned Area

Nearly all of Greenwood is set ablaze.

N Elgin Ave.

N Detroit Ave.

GREENWOOD

Business

District

More buildings set afire in business district.

Owen

Park

Cameron St.

White mob sets first fires along Archer Street.

Archer St.

Shots are fired across the tracks.

Tulsa tribune

Frisco tracks

Heavy gunfire ensues downtown.

Police Headquarters

Downtown Tulsa

TULSA

Drexel building

Riot erupts at courthouse. First shot fired.

Courthouse

Detroit Ave.

Main St.

Oaklawn

Cemetery

Pine St.

Frankfort Ave.

Greenwood Ave.

Tulsa

Okla.

Peoria Ave.

Greenwood

Main St.

Latimer St.

Nearly all of Greenwood is set ablaze.

Burned Area

GREENWOOD

Business

District

More buildings set afire in business district.

Cameron St.

White mob sets first fires along Archer Street.

Archer St.

Shots are fired across the tracks.

Tulsa tribune

Frisco tracks

Heavy gunfire ensues downtown.

Police Headquarters

Downtown Tulsa

TULSA

Drexel building

Riot erupts at courthouse. First shot fired.

Courthouse

Main St.

Oaklawn

Cemetery

Pine St.

Greenwood

Peoria Ave.

Frankfort Ave.

Greenwood Ave.

Main St.

Nearly all of Greenwood is set ablaze.

Burned Area

More buildings set afire in business district.

Greenwood

Business

District

Cameron St.

White mob sets first fires along Archer Street.

Archer St.

Tulsa tribune

Shots are fired across the tracks.

Police

Headquarters

Heavy gunfire ensues downtown.

Drexel building

Riot erupts at courthouse. First shot fired.

Courthouse

Main St.

TULSA

Greenwood

Greenwood Ave.

Nearly all of Greenwood is set ablaze.

Burned

Area

More buildings set afire in business district.

Tulsa

tribune

White mob sets first fires along Archer St.

Drexel

building

Shots are fired across the tracks.

Police

Headquarters

Heavy gunfire ensues downtown.

Main St.

TULSA

Riot erupts at courthouse.

The New York Times

The mob indiscriminately shot Black people in the streets. Members of the mob ransacked homes and stole money and jewelry. They set fires, “house by house, block by block,” according to the commission report.

Terror came from the sky, too. White pilots flew airplanes that dropped dynamite over the neighborhood, the report stated, making the Tulsa aerial attack what historians call among the first of an American city.

The numbers presented a staggering portrait of loss: 35 blocks burned to the ground; as many as 300 dead; hundreds injured; 8,000 to 10,000 left homeless; more than 1,470 homes burned or looted; and eventually, 6,000 detained in internment camps.

The white mob indiscriminately shot Black people in the streets during the massacre, which left as many as 300 dead.Department of Special Collections and University Archives, McFarlin Library at The University of Tulsa

The neighborhood economy was destroyed. Two dozen grocery stores. Thirty-one restaurants. Four drug stores.

Greenwood, where Black success embodied the American dream, was no more, suddenly, dreadfully wiped out.

What was lost

Greenwood would be rebuilt, and for a few decades, it would again thrive before falling to urban renewal and other forces. But that spring of 1921 unmoored and unrooted the neighborhood with lasting effects.

Not long after the attack, shell-shocked survivors — who were blamed for the violence — returned home to ruin. Amid the charred remnants, they were forced to make an excruciating decision that would change family histories forever: leave and start over again somewhere else, or rebuild.

They also faced another kind of white resistance: a fire ordinance intended to prevent Black property owners from rebuilding on their own and insurance companies that refused to pay damage claims.

“Greenwood wasn’t a gift from anyone, it was created by the citizens of Greenwood who withstood the tragedy of 1921 and rebuilt it again,” said Scott Ellsworth, the author of the recently released book, “The Ground Breaking: An American City and Its Search for Justice.” “Greenwood is the story of resilience. It is the story of courage.”

Those who stayed began stitching their lives back together almost immediately. They joined forces and began rebuilding homes and businesses. Within a day, C.L. Netherland, a massacre survivor and minister whose barber shop at 110 Greenwood Avenue was destroyed, purchased a folding chair, a strop and razor, and set up shop on a sidewalk.

The massacre also claimed the new Mount Zion Baptist Church, whose first service in its new building had been held less than two months earlier. The congregation’s hundreds of members had financed and built the $92,000 church over several years, according to “Black Wall Street: From Riot to Renaissance in Tulsa’s Historic Greenwood District,” a book by Mr. Johnson, education chair for the centennial commission. It would have been easier to declare bankruptcy. Instead, church members rebuilt and dug in. It took an additional 21 years before the initial debt was repaid.

The Mount Zion Baptist Church burned down during the massacre.Department of Special Collections and University Archives, McFarlin Library at The University of Tulsa

The final insult of the massacre came in the silence. For decades, Tulsa deliberately ignored and covered up what had happened in Greenwood. Many descendants said they learned about the mob and the killings only as adults — and even then, some of the recounting was told in whispers.

“You could see the pain in my grandmother’s eyes when she talked about what happened,” said LeRoy Gibbs II, 52, the grandson of Ernestine Gibbs, a massacre survivor who was 17 when the violence unfolded. “Before she would get too far, before it became too painful, she would shift and start talking about where we are today.”

Some surviving business owners who built the 100 block of Greenwood Avenue had remarkable second chapters. Others, who struggled in the aftermath, had heartbreaking stories. The Williams family, among the most successful before the massacre, stayed and rebuilt.

Dreamland Theatre, owned by the Williams family, was destroyed in the massacre.Tulsa Historical Society and Museum

Mr. Smitherman, the civil rights activist who ran The Tulsa Star, eventually landed in Buffalo, where he became the publisher of The Buffalo Star (later named The Empire Star). He was among several Black Tulsans indicted for “inciting a riot,” and was exonerated posthumously.

Ms. Parrish, the journalist who ran a typing school, stayed to chronicle the massacre. The two wealthy men who helped found Greenwood were hit hard financially. Mr. Stradford, who was indicted, escaped to Kansas and then Chicago. He never recovered his fortune. Mr. Gurley reportedly lost nearly $158,000 in 1921, or $2.3 million in today’s dollars.

African-American men sifting through the burned ruins of the Gurley Hotel on Greenwood Avenue.Tulsa Historical Society and Museum

James Nails, who had opened a shoe shop with his brother Henry, rebuilt but never really recovered. He eventually left Tulsa.

“He was really unable to carry on emotionally, psychologically,” Ms. Nails-Alford said. “You get your education, you work hard, you start businesses, you’re able to employ your family members and community members, and then you lose it all within hours. It takes away a man’s dignity.”

There is a pending lawsuit and ongoing discussions about how and whether to compensate the families of the Tulsa Massacre victims. No compensation has ever been paid under court order or by legislation.

To this day, not one person has been prosecuted or punished for the devastation and ruin of the original Greenwood.

Methodology

The buildings, maps and data presented in this article are based on historical records. In as many cases as possible, multiple sources were used to confirm details like the location of businesses and residences. When there were differing accounts or information, The Times used what was cited by the most sources. The number of killings in the massacre has been estimated to be up to 300, but a precise number was not available. Street addresses of some buildings were numbered in different ways, depending on the source.

The 3-D model of Tulsa, Okla., was created using a series of both computerized and manual steps that transformed historical material into digital data. First, we took images of Sanborn insurance maps from 1920 and 1915 and used a process called georeferencing to align them to modern geography. The 1920 maps came from the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum and were used to reconstruct as much of Greenwood and downtown Tulsa as possible. The 1915 maps were from the Library of Congress and were used to fill in other parts of Tulsa, where 1920 maps were not available.

Next, we wrote a computer program to extract the building outlines from those maps using a technique called machine learning. We also created an application to input the height information for each building from the Sanborn maps.

Archival photographs and maps were used to create a detailed model of the 100 block of Greenwood Avenue. Buildings or parts of buildings without photographic reference are shown without details. The street grid was created by georeferencing a 1921 street map of Tulsa from the Library of Congress.

We utilized a combination of optical character recognition and manual data entry to digitize the Polk-Hoffhine Tulsa City Directory from 1921, obtained from the Tulsa City-County Library. Those data were used to analyze and map businesses in Greenwood. Additional businesses were identified using the “Tulsa Colored Business Directory” in The Tulsa Star (1913-21) and The List of Losses published in “Events of The Tulsa Disaster” by Mary E. Jones Parrish. Owners of businesses on the 100 block were identified using The Tulsa Star and accounts of survivors and their descendants.

To create the maps of the occupations of African-American residents in Greenwood, we analyzed 1920 U.S. census data from Ancestry.com for residents for which occupation data was recorded. Our analysis included residents who the 1920 census classified as Black or mulatto. We then mapped the homes of thousands of those residents using the 1920 Sanborn maps.

Street maps from 1921 and Sanborn maps from 1939 were also used to help map addresses. The addresses of landmarks and other buildings were used to help determine the order of house numbers on a block. In some cases, Open Street Maps was used to locate addresses where the numbering system had not changed. Street name changes from the 1920 and 1921 city directories were incorporated in this process.

We categorized occupations into three broad categories: professionals, skilled craftspeople and service workers. Records in which occupations were illegible, or were without a house number or clear address were excluded.

While the Greenwood neighborhood boundary is not officially defined, the outline shown in this piece includes the predominantly African-American area shown in the 2001 state commission report as well as some additional areas, based on our analysis of census data.